Evacuation and rescuing of people
Each building must have sufficiently spacious and safe escape routes for movement. In the event of a fire or other accident, people will be able to get out through them quickly and safely. If possible, always use the marked evacuation routes to escape. These are the safest routes.
If there are many people in the building, there should be evacuation plans on the walls. On these, you will see the floor plan, your own location at the time of reading the plan, the exits, and the location of fire extinguishers and means for sounding an alarm. Such plans must, for example, be on the walls of all schools. If you are studying or working at a school, find out if there is an automatic fire alarm. In addition, remember where the alarm buttons are located!
The first task of the rescue workers and everyone else is to help the people in danger immediately. The order of rescuing depends on the nature of the danger.
Leaving and rescue in the event of a fire
- It is your own safety that is essential when rescuing people.
- Try to leave the burning building quickly.
- Carefully open the door of a smoke-filled room. The inflow of fresh air can inflate the flames, causing an explosion.
- If you cannot get out, do not hide. Try to signal your presence in every possible way. Only then will the rescuers see or hear where you are. If you can, go to the window and show yourself.
- If people are out of the danger zone and the rescue team has not yet arrived, evaluate the situation. If possible, start extinguishing the fire and rescuing the property. In doing so, you should never risk your life or health. A human being is more important than any expensive property.
- Those who are in immediate danger of fire, dense smoke, or high heat must be rescued in the first order.
- When you enter a room where there can be people, call out to them.
- Frightened children often hide under the bed, in the closet, in the corner, or in other places where it is hard to find them. If possible, look for them.
- If you have found a victim who cannot move by themselves, help them – support them or drag or carry them out.
- Under no circumstances should you run in flaming clothes – it will intensify the fire. Lie down and cover your head. This way, the fire will not burn the face and the hair does not light up. Flames should be dampened by tossing water, a blanket, a carpet, or other fabric on the burning clothing. If these are not available, roll the victim on the ground. Unfortunately, this may cause more burns.
After the danger has passed
- Help neighbours and the more vulnerable people – disabled people, the elderly, children, pregnant women, etc.
- Start giving first aid. Call an ambulance even when the people are seemingly healthy. They may be in a shock or have internal injuries.
- When you have left the building, inform others. This way, the rescuers will not look for you in vain.
- Stay away from places that are in danger of collapsing. As a result of the fire, the structures of the building may have weakened.
- Do not start cleaning or throwing things away before the person carrying out proceedings has investigated the causes of the fire.
- Inform affected people about things that have been destroyed or spoiled. Contact your insurance company as soon as possible. It is more difficult to prove the extent of the actual damage later.
- Owners of houses subject to heritage conservation must also inform the National Heritage Board about the damage.